Background Analysis of the Indus Conquest: The Arabs were the first Muslims to invade India. In fact, the Arabs had trade relations with India long before the advent of Islam It continued after the advent and spread of Islam in Arabia in the 7th century AD. Despite the success of the first Muslim expedition to India in 638-636 during the reign of Hazrat Omar (R), the conquest did not continue due to the prudent policy of the Caliphs at that time and later. Expeditions were carried out in India as part of the expansion of the Muslim empire during the period of the expansionist Umayyad caliphs. At the instigation of Hajjaj bin Yusuf, the ruler of Iraq, the Arabs invaded the Indus. There were various reasons behind sending this expedition. The first two campaigns failed Then the third expedition was sent under the leadership of Muhammad bin Qasim, the nephew and son-in-law of Hajjaj bin Yusuf. Well-trained and well-trained Arab armies easily defeated and killed King Dahir of Sindh in battle. One by one Qasim occupied Multan including Debal, Nirun, Sehwan, Rawar, Brahmanabad, Dahir’s capital Arar and established the caliphate. But his sudden removal and death weakened the Muslim rule in the country Because of his incomplete conquests and the subsequent lack of cooperation and support of the caliphs, Arab rule in the Indus region did not last. Nevertheless, the conquest of the Indus by the Arabs is not in vain. Although politically fruitless, its social, commercial, religious, and cultural consequences were significant. Muizuddin Muhammad Ghurir’s campaign is a political one in India
Muhammad Ghori was an ambitious man. Naturally he was interested in establishing a huge empire. However, he had some special reasons for invading India. First, the Ghorids, like Sultan Mahmud, wanted to establish an empire in Central Asia. But the establishment of empires in the region was hampered by Seljuk Turks and Khawarizm Shah. After being defeated by the Shah of Khawarizm more than once, he gave up hope and was forced to focus on India. About 150 years after the death of Sultan Mahmud, Muhammad Ghori invaded India. On the eve of the Ghori invasion, northern India was divided into several small kingdoms: Khasru Malik, a descendant of Sultan Mahmud, ruled in the Punjab. North Indus and Multan were under the rule of Karamatis. Lower Indus region was under the rule of Sura dynasty. Its capital was Debal. Gujarat was the Ajmer ruled by the Baghelas, the Chauhan kings. The Chauhans gradually became stronger and in 1150 AD they occupied Delhi and also occupied the north-eastern Rajputana. Prithviraj was the king of Delhi and Ajmer at the time of Muhammad Ghori’s invasion. King Jayachandra VI of the Gaharbal dynasty ruled in Kanauj at that time There was animosity between Chauhan and Gaharbal kings again. In eastern India, Bihar was ruled by Palas and Bengal by Sena. There was no unity among the Hindu kings of North India, but they were enemies of each other. Their disunity was instrumental in the success of Muhammad Ghori
Positive result of Indus conquest
Due to the untimely death of Muhammad bin Qasim, his conquests were confined to Sindh and Multan. This is especially the reason why there is disagreement among historians about the outcome of Muslim conquest of Indus. Stanley Lenpool commented, “The Arab conquest of the Arabs in the history of India and Islam is just an episode, it is a futile victory.” Although some historians support his point, some historians believe that the result of Muhammad bin Qasim’s conquest of Sindh was far-reaching. But this victory cannot be called in vain. The Arabs established an advanced administrative system in the Indus region Many of the Ayub soldiers settled permanently in the Indus and some even married local women. Thus permanent Muslim settlements developed in India. They built roads, educational institutions, mosques and other infrastructure. Arabs and Hindus have lived side by side for a long time. There is no denying that the victory of Muhammad bin Qasim inspired Sultan Mahmud to invade India again and again. After Sultan Mahmud, Muhammad Ghori conquered vast areas of India. However, based on the victory of Muhammad bin Qasim, a long lasting Muslim rule was later established in India. Social and economic consequences The far-reaching consequences of the Indus conquest were noticeable in the social and economic spheres. As the locals came in contact with the Muslims, they were attracted by Islam’s ideals of equality and friendship. The Jats and Mewats welcomed the Muslims Many of the lower caste Hindus converted to Islam in order to get rid of the caste system and social discrimination in Hinduism. As a result of exposure to Muslims, the severity of caste and caste system in Indian society was greatly reduced. This victory increased India’s trade with the Arab Empire. Not only that, but it also spread the maritime trade of the Arabs along the coasts of South and Southeast Asia. As a result, both sides benefit economically. Cultural Consequences The conquest of the Indus by the Arabs in the cultural sphere was extremely far-reaching. Before the conquest of the Indus, the Arabs became acquainted with Greek, Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Persian cultures. They make a kind of combination in all these cultures. This is what happened when Muslims came to India
Possessing an integrated culture and civilization. Indians have made progress in philosophy, literature, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, music, painting, etc., since ancient times. Communication between Indian civilization and Islamic civilization resulted in the exchange and amalgamation of ideas. The caliphs of the Abbasid period ushered in a golden age by translating books of Indian science into Arabic. An example is the book ‘Sindhind’. At the invitation of Caliph Mansur, some Indian scholars took with them the Sanskrit book Siddhanta, written on astronomy, on their way to Baghdad. Arabic scholars translated it into Arabic. The book translated by DENT was named ‘Sindhind’. The Arabs got their idea of mathematical numbers from the Indians. ‘Charak’ and ‘Sushruta’ written on medical science are translated into Arabic The proverb of ‘Panchatantra’ has been translated into Arabic
Gained widespread popularity in the Arabian Peninsula. The Positive Outcome of the India Expedition by Muizuddin Muhammad Ghuri: The Second Battle of Tarain is a very important event in the history of India. It can be said that Muhammad Ghori’s victory against this alliance of Rajputs was a strong step in establishing Muslim rule in India. Muhammad Ghori and his generals then conquered different parts of India and spread Muslim rule in the country. The second battle of Tarain was unfortunate for the Hindus. The defeat in this battle shattered the resistance of the Rajputs. After that the Hindus of India were not able to form any other alliance to prevent the Muslims The victory of this war extended the rights of the Muslims almost to the outskirts of Delhi. Hansi, Samana, Kohram, Bakuharam and several other forts came under the control of Muhammad Ghori. The kingdom of Ajmer was destroyed by Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori destroyed Hindu temples and many other buildings in Ajmer and established mosques and madrasas there. The city of Ajmer was entrusted to the son of Prithviraj on the condition of paying annual taxes. After the Second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad Ghori returned to Ghazni, appointing one of his loyal followers, Qutbuddin, as ruler of the conquered Indian territory. Qutbuddin conquered Delhi in 1193 AD and occupied Meerut, Kol, Gwalior etc. one by one. Qutbuddin established his capital at Delhi.
Impact of Muslim campaigns on subsequent politics:
Political and Administrative Outcome Muhammad Ghori’s expedition to India outweighed the political and administrative consequences of previous Muslim expeditions. Muhammad bin Qasim’s conquests were limited to Sandhu and Multan. Although Sultan Mahmud invaded India 17 times, it did not have any immediate political consequences. His campaigns weakened the military might of the Indian monarchy. On the other hand, Muhammad Ghori’s expedition to India established Muslim rule in the country permanently. He entered the interior of India after capturing Multan, Indus and Punjab. As a result of his victory in the battle of Tarain, he conquered the area up to Ajmer. Commenting on the importance of the Second Battle of Tarain, D.A. “This war ensured the ultimate success of the Muslim invasion of Hindustan,” Smith said. He left his general, Qutbuddin Ibek, to represent the conquered territory. Qutbuddin also conquered different parts of India and brought vast areas of northern India under Muslim rule. In fact, the victory of Qutbuddin was the logical consequence of the victory of Muhammad Ghori in the Second Battle of Tarain. By conquering Kannauj and Varanasi, Muhammad Ghori consolidated the Muslim conquest in India. Later, with the conquest of Bihar and Bengal by Bakhtiyar Khalji, Muslim rule was established in almost the whole of northern India. Muslim Empire | A New Administrative Situation The new administration was needed for the expansion of state managers and the establishment of established empire. Qutbuddin, as the representative of Muhammad Ghori, dealt with the Indian administrative system. As a result, it originated and was handed over. Muslim judges and faujdars were appointed to complete the judicial process and maintain law and order.